Monday, September 23, 2013 0 comments

Last but definitely NOT least

well helooooo everybody!!

so that's it. MGT300 is done, there will be no more notes. wish me the best of luck for my final. to be honest, i'm scared to death.

but i love this blog. insyaallah will post some random things about myself in the future.

anyway, i want to give credits to my very very beloved bestfriend for showing me A-Z how to make this blog THIS nice. ahha! this is the link to her blog. go check it out!! p/s: she's prettyyy

before leaving, i'll leave you with some of my overrated selfie. in case you miss me =P

p/s : the baby in second photo is my lil' bro. comel kan?? tgk kakak dia la~~ LOL!


Chapter 19 : Outsourcing in the 21st Century Organization

          In the high-speed global business environment, an organization needs to maximize its profits, enlarge its market share, and restrain its ever-increasing costs
          Insourcing (in-house-development) – a common approach using the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain the organization's information technology systems
          Outsourcing – an arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house

          Reasons companies outsource

          Benefits from outsourcing include:
1.       Financial savings
2.       Increased technical abilities
3.       Market agility

          Factors driving outsourcing growth include:
1.       Core competencies
2.       Rapid growth
3.       Industry changes
4.       The Internet

          Business process outsourcing (BPO) – contracting of a specific business task, such as payroll, to a third-party service provider
          BPO is divided into two categories:
1.       Back-office outsourcing
2.       Front-office outsourcing

          Offshore outsourcing – using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems
          According to Forrester Research, nearly half of all businesses use offshore providers, and two-thirds plan to send work overseas in the near future


Chapter 15 : Creating Collaborative Partnerships

          Organizations create and use teams, partnerships, and alliances to:
      Undertake new initiatives
      Address both minor and major problems
      Capitalize on significant opportunities
          Organizations create teams, partnerships, and alliances both internally with employees and externally with other organizations

          Collaboration system – supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of information

          Organizations form alliances and partnerships with other organizations based on their core competency

      Core competency – an organization’s key strength, a business function that it does better than any of its competitors
      Core competency strategy – organization chooses to focus specifically on its core competency and forms partnerships with other organizations to handle nonstrategic business processes
          It is just as important for an organization to form teams, partnerships, and alliances with other organizations
          An organization that uses a core competency strategy will focus on its core competency and form partnerships with other organizations to handle nonstrategic business processes
          The most common example of this is outsourcing payroll or accounting functions
          Many organizations want to focus on the marketing and selling of a unique product or service.  These organizations do not want to incur the expense of maintaining accounting or tax experts on staff, hence they will outsource these functions to a business partner
          This is a great time to refer back to the opening case
          Discuss how Levi’s core competency is brand-name differentiation and recognition, while Wal-Mart’s core competency is retail cost leadership
          The partnership between these two organizations enables cost-leadership selling of a widely recognized brand name
          Information technology can make a business partnership easier to establish and manage
      Information partnership – occurs when two or more organizations cooperate by integrating their IT systems, thereby providing customers with the best of what each can offer
      The Internet has dramatically increased the ease and availability for IT-enabled organizational alliances and partnerships

          Collaboration solves specific business tasks such as telecommuting, online meetings, deploying applications, and remote project and sales management
          Collaboration allows people, teams, and organizations to leverage and build upon the ideas and talents of staff, suppliers, customers, and business partners
          It involves a unique set of business challenges that:
          Include complex interactions between people who may be in different locations and desire to work across function and discipline areas
          Require flexibility in work process and the ability to involve others quickly and easily
          Create and share information rapidly and effortlessly within a team
          Increasingly, organizations are extending their focus from internal operations like planning and scheduling, enterprise resource planning and sales force automation, toward operations beyond their own four walls with external customers and suppliers
          Collaboration system – an IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of information
          Two categories of collaboration
1.       Unstructured collaboration (information collaboration) - includes document exchange, shared whiteboards, discussion forums, and e-mail
2.       Structured collaboration (process collaboration) - involves shared participation in business processes such as workflow in which knowledge is hardcoded as rules

          Collaborative business functions

          Collaboration systems include:

1.       Knowledge management system supports the capturing and use of an organization’s “know-how”
2.       Content management system (CMS) – provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment
3.       Workflow management system – controls the movement of work through a business process
4.       Groupware software that supports team interaction and dynamics including calendaring, scheduling, and videoconferencing

Knowledge management system
Knowledge management (KM) involves capturing, classifying, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing information assets in a way that provides context for effective decisions and actions
Knowledge management system supports the capturing and use of an organization’s “know-how”
          Intellectual and knowledge-based assets fall into two categories
1.       Explicit knowledge – consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of IT
2.       Tacit knowledge - knowledge contained in people’s heads
          The following are two best practices for transferring or recreating tacit knowledge
1.       Shadowing – less experienced staff observe more experienced staff to learn how their more experienced counterparts approach their work
2.       Joint problem solving – a novice and expert work together on a project

            Reasons why organizations launch knowledge management programs

          Knowledge management systems include:
§  Knowledge repositories (databases)
§  Expertise tools
§  E-learning applications
§  Discussion and chat technologies
§  Search and data mining tools

          KM and social networking - Finding out how information flows through an organization
      Social networking analysis (SNA) – a process of mapping a group’s contacts (whether personal or professional) to identify who knows whom and who works with whom
      SNA provides a clear picture of how employees and divisions work together and can help identify key experts

Content Management
          Content management system (CMS) – provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment
          CMS marketplace includes:
      Document management system (DMS)
      Digital asset management system (DAM)
      Web content management system (WCM)

Working wikis
          Wikis - Web-based tools that make it easy for users to add, remove, and change online content
          Business wikis - collaborative Web pages that allow users to edit documents, share ideas, or monitor the status of a project

Workflow Management Systems
          Work activities can be performed in series or in parallel that involves people and automated computer systems
          Workflow – defines all the steps or business rules, from beginning to end, required for a business process
          Workflow management system – facilitates the automation and management of business processes and controls the movement of work through the business process
          Messaging-based workflow system – sends work assignments through an e-mail system
          Database-based workflow system – stores documents in a central location and automatically asks the team members to access the document when it is their turn to edit the document

Groupware Systems
          Groupware technologies

          Groupware software that supports team interaction and dynamics including calendaring, scheduling, and videoconferencing
          Groupware system advantage

          Groupware falls into two categories:
1.       Users of the groupware are working together at the same time or different times (time difference)
2.       Users are working together in the same place or in different places (physical location difference)
          Videoconference -  is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies that allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been called visual collaboration and is a type of groupware. Videoconferencing uses telecommunications of audio and video to bring people at different sites together for a meeting. This can be as simple as a conversation between two people in private offices (point-to-point) or involve several sites (multi-point) with more than one person in large rooms at different sites. Besides the audio and visual transmission of people, videoconferencing can be used to share documents, computer-displayed information, and whiteboards
          Web conferencing -  blends audio, video, and document-sharing technologies to create virtual meeting rooms where people “gather” at a password-protected Web site. There, they can chat in conference calls or use real-time text messages. They can mark up a shared document as if it were a blackboard, and even watch live software demos or video clips. Perhaps the biggest surprise about Web conferencing is its simplicity. Users only need to set up an account and download a few small software files. The best part about a Web conference is that attendees do not have to have the same hardware or software. Every participant can see what is on anyone else’s screen, regardless of the application being used
          Instant messaging - type of communications service that enables someone to create a kind of private chat room with another individual to communicate in real-time over the Internet


Chapter 14 : E-business

          The Internet is a powerful channel that presents new opportunities for an organization to:
§  Touch customers
§  Enrich products and services with information
§  Reduce costs

          How do e-commerce and e-business differ?
      E-commerce – the buying and selling of goods and services over the Internet
      E-commerce refers only to online transactions
      E-business – the conducting of business on the Internet including, not only buying and selling, but also serving customers and collaborating with business partners
      E-business refers to online transactions, serving customers and collaborating with business partners

          E-business model – an approach to conducting electronic business on the Internet

Business types
Brick-and-mortar business - operates in a physical store without an Internet presence.
Pure-play (virtual) business - a business that operates on the Internet only without a physical store. Examples include and
Click-and-mortar business a business that operates in a physical store and on the Internet.  Examples include Cala Qisya and Barnes and Noble.

          E-Business benefits include:
§  Highly accessible
§  Increased customer loyalty
§  Improved information content
§  Increased convenience
§  Increased global reach
§  Decreased cost

          E-business challenges include:
§  Protecting consumers
§  Leveraging existing systems
§  Increasing liability
§  Providing security
§  Adhering to taxation rules

          There are numerous advantages and limitations in e-business revenue models including:
§  Transaction fees
§  License fees
§  Subscription fees
§  Value-added fees
§  Advertising fees

          Web mashup - a Web site or Web application that uses content from more than one source to create a completely new service. A Web mashup is a Web site or Web application that uses content from more than one source to create a completely new service. The term is typically used in the context of music; putting Jay-Z lyrics over a Radiohead song makes something old become new. The Web version of a mashup allows users to mix map data, photos, video, news feeds, blog entries and so on.
      Application programming interface (API) - a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications
      Mashup editor - WSYIWYGs (What You See Is What You Get) for mashups